Intelligence is the ability to learn. Intelligence is the ability for abstract thinking.
To judge well, to reason well, to comprehend well: these are the characteristics of Intelligence.
Jean Piaget: Intelligence is the ability to adapt to one’s surroundings.
Terman: Intelligence is the capacity to learn and adjust to relatively new situations.
Wechsler: Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual, to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment.
Stern: It is the general mental adaptability to new problems and conditions of life.
Theories of Intelligence
Binet’s Uni Factor Thory
Spearman’s Two Factor Theory: General and Specific Intelligence
Thorndike’s Multi-factor Theory-
- Verbal Ability
- Numerical Ability
- Reasoning Ability
- Memory Ability
- Spatial Ability
- Word Fluency
Content: Figural, Symbolic, Semantic, Behavioural
Operation: Cognition, Memory, Convergent thinking, Divergent thinking, Evaluation
Products: Units, Class, Relations, Systems, Transformation, Implication
Main Characteristics of intelligence:
Ability to learn
Ability to understand
Ability to adjust
Ability for abstract thinking
Ability for logical thinking
Types of Intelligence
§ Bodily/ Kinesthetic
Tests in Intelligence: Binet and Simon Test in 1905
has following type test items:
Recognition of objects
Naming objects in picture
Definition of familiar objects
WAIS Test: has following type test items:
Non Verbal Test
Classification of Tests:
Individual Test: One person is tested at a time.
Features: Time Consuming, Costly, Reliable, Valid, Good in testing child, mentally weak and shy persons
Group Test: Many persons can be tested at a time.
Features: Less Time Consuming, Less Costly, Less Reliable, Less Valid, Not Good in testing child, mentally weak and shy persons
Verbal Test: Words are used in testing.
Features: Culture Specific, Cannot be used with persons not having same language
Performance Test: Words are not used. Instead some performance is tested.
Features: Not Culture Specific, Can be used with persons not having same language