Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Intelligence

Intelligence


Intelligence is the ability to learn. Intelligence is the ability for abstract thinking.
 To judge well, to reason well, to comprehend well: these are the characteristics of Intelligence.
Jean Piaget: Intelligence is the ability to adapt to one’s surroundings.
Terman: Intelligence is the capacity to learn and adjust to relatively new situations.
Wechsler: Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual, to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment.
Stern: It is the general mental adaptability to new problems and conditions of life.
 Theories of Intelligence
 Binet’s Uni Factor Thory
Spearman’s Two Factor Theory: General and Specific Intelligence
Thorndike’s Multi-factor Theory-
  • Verbal Ability
  • Numerical Ability
  • Reasoning Ability
  • Memory Ability
  • Spatial Ability
  • Word Fluency
Guilford’s Multi-dimensional
Content: Figural, Symbolic, Semantic, Behavioural
Operation: Cognition, Memory, Convergent thinking, Divergent thinking, Evaluation
Products: Units, Class, Relations, Systems, Transformation, Implication
Main Characteristics of intelligence:
Ability to learn
Ability to understand
Ability to adjust
Ability for abstract thinking
 Ability for logical thinking

Types of Intelligence
§         Spatial
§         Linguistic
§         Logical/Mathematical
§         Bodily/ Kinesthetic
§         Musical
§         Interpersonal
§         Intrapersonal
§         Naturalistic
§         Existential
Tests in Intelligence: Binet and Simon Test in 1905
has following type test items:
Visual Coordination
Recognition of objects
Naming objects in picture
Suggestibility
Definition of familiar objects
WAIS Test: has following type test items:

           
Vocabulary
            Information
             Arithmetic
            Comprehension
            Similarities
             Digit Span

Non Verbal Test
    Block Design
    Picture Arrangement
     Picture Completion
     Object Assembly
     Maze
Classification of Tests:
          Individual Test: One person is tested at a time.
           Features: Time Consuming, Costly, Reliable, Valid, Good in testing child, mentally weak and shy persons
  Group Test: Many persons can be tested at a time.
Features:  Less Time Consuming, Less Costly, Less Reliable, Less Valid, Not Good in testing child, mentally weak and shy persons
 Other Classification:
   Verbal Test: Words are used in testing.
   Features: Culture Specific, Cannot be used with persons not having same language
Performance Test: Words are not used. Instead some performance is tested.
Features: Not Culture Specific, Can be used with persons not having same language






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