Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Question Bank

1.    What is Educational Psychology? Discuss any three definitions and explain in your own words.
2.    What is educational psychology? Discuss the scope of educational psychology.
3.    Explain the concept and nature of Educational Psychology in detail.
4.    Discuss the functions of Educational Psychology among its scope.
5.    Discuss the importance of Educational Psychology and explain how the study of Educational Psychology is useful to the teacher?
6.    Explain some important findings of educational psychology and their application in your teaching.
7.    What is Growth and Development?
8.    List the characteristics of Growth and Development. Discuss the factors that affect Growth and Development.
9.    List the stages of Human Development and discuss their main characteristics in detail.
10. Explain the concept of adolescent period in detail and list the characteristics of adolescent child.
11. "Adolescent is a process of stress and strain."- Justify.
12. What is physical development? Compare the physical development of male and female adolescent child in detail.
13. Define physical, cognitive (mental) and psycho/social development? Explain with examples.
14. Explain the factors affecting Physical, Cognitive and Psycho / Social development of an adolescent learner.
15. What are special needs, problems and desires of an adolescent student? How can teachers help these students?
16. What kind of activities can be organized at the school for the development of an adolescent student?
17. What kind of guidance and counselling should be given the development of to the adolescent children in the school?
18. What is the role of reinforcers in Skinner's theory of learning?
19. Why Skinner's learning theory called operant conditioning? Discuss the difference between classical & operant conditioning.
20. How Skinner's operant conditioning is helpful in classroom learning? Discuss in detail. Explain the educational implication of Skinner's theory in detail.
21. What is cognitivists’ theory of learning?
22.  What is Gestalt’s insightful learning? How will you apply the principles of Gestalt’s theory in teaching?
23. What is cognitivists’ theory of learning? How will use the principles of this theory in your classroom teaching.
24. What is humanistic theory? Discuss the important characteristics of the theory.
25. Discuss Roger's theory of experiential learning in detail and discuss its educational implications.
26. What is learning? Give at least two important definitions and discuss learning as a process in detail.
27. List the major factors in learning process and how does they affect learning? Discuss in brief.
28. Discuss the factors affecting the learner in his learning process.
29. As a teacher what method will you use to make the learning process more effective?
30. Calculate mean, median, mode, S.D from the following scores­
                    a- 4, 8, 9, 12, 13, 6, 7, 3, 6, 7, 14, 11, 13
                    b- 8, 3, 5, 8, 4, 2, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 10, 9

31. Make a frequency distribution from the following scores and then calculate mean, median, mode­
12,11, 13, 25, 10, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 11, 23, 11 , 30, 23, 15, 16, 17, 12, 23, 24, 26, 29, 28, 27, 21, 22, 23. 24, 9
1.    What do you understand by continuous and discrete series? Give examples of both. Give higher and lower limit of following scores­
          12,15,14,17, 20,17,23,26,28,25,21

2.    Write short notes on the following
v  Mean
v  Median
v  Mode
3.            Write uses of calculating co-relation. Describe positive and negative co­-relation    with examples.
4.    Describe taxonomy of educational objectives as presented by Bloom.
5.    Describe main characteristics of normal probability curve.
62. State the importance of educational statistics.
63. Draw a normal probability curve & list out its characteristics.
64. What is Personality? Discuss the theories of personality
65.  What is intelligence? State the types of intelligence.
66. What is aptitude? Explain the concept with an example.
67. Write short note on jung’s classification 
68. Write short note on Theory of insightful learning.
69. How will you apply knowledge of general principles of learning in your classroom practices?
70. As a teacher how will you apply laws of Thorndike’s for effective learning?
71. State the educational implications of Connectivism theory of learning given by Thorndike.
72. Explain the mechanism of operant conditioning.
73. State the major theoretical principles of Thorndike theory of learning.
74. State educational implications of operant conditioning.
75. What is operant?
76. What is operant conditioning?
77. State the products of learning.
78. State the factors affecting learning. Explain factors affecting learning with respect to the learner.
79. State the factors affecting learning. Explain factors affecting learning with respect to the environment.
80. Write short note on operant conditioning.
81.  Write short note on Connectivism (Thorndike theory of learning)
82. What is the formula for finding mean, median for grouped and ungrouped data?
83. Explain the concept of learning.
84. State the nature of learning.
85. Write the definition of personality given by Allport.
86. State the characteristics of personality.
87. Discuss the type approach of personality.
88. Discuss the trait approach of personality.
89. Discuss the Hippocrates’s classification of personality.
90. Discuss the Sheldon’s classification of personality.
91. Discuss Jung’s classification of personality.
92. State the trait’s of Catell’s theory.
93. State the characteristics of intelligence.

Tuesday, October 26, 2010



Theories of Development of personality:
Humanistic approach: Given by Maslow
Love& Belonging
Freud’s Theory


Erickson’s Theory
Infancy: 0—1 Year
Early Childhood: 1to 3 years
Play Age: 4-5

School Age 6-11
Young Adulthood: 20-24
Middle Adulthood: 25-65
Late Adulthood :



Intelligence is the ability to learn. Intelligence is the ability for abstract thinking.
 To judge well, to reason well, to comprehend well: these are the characteristics of Intelligence.
Jean Piaget: Intelligence is the ability to adapt to one’s surroundings.
Terman: Intelligence is the capacity to learn and adjust to relatively new situations.
Wechsler: Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual, to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment.
Stern: It is the general mental adaptability to new problems and conditions of life.
 Theories of Intelligence
 Binet’s Uni Factor Thory
Spearman’s Two Factor Theory: General and Specific Intelligence
Thorndike’s Multi-factor Theory-
  • Verbal Ability
  • Numerical Ability
  • Reasoning Ability
  • Memory Ability
  • Spatial Ability
  • Word Fluency
Guilford’s Multi-dimensional
Content: Figural, Symbolic, Semantic, Behavioural
Operation: Cognition, Memory, Convergent thinking, Divergent thinking, Evaluation
Products: Units, Class, Relations, Systems, Transformation, Implication
Main Characteristics of intelligence:
Ability to learn
Ability to understand
Ability to adjust
Ability for abstract thinking
 Ability for logical thinking

Types of Intelligence
§         Spatial
§         Linguistic
§         Logical/Mathematical
§         Bodily/ Kinesthetic
§         Musical
§         Interpersonal
§         Intrapersonal
§         Naturalistic
§         Existential
Tests in Intelligence: Binet and Simon Test in 1905
has following type test items:
Visual Coordination
Recognition of objects
Naming objects in picture
Definition of familiar objects
WAIS Test: has following type test items:

             Digit Span

Non Verbal Test
    Block Design
    Picture Arrangement
     Picture Completion
     Object Assembly
Classification of Tests:
          Individual Test: One person is tested at a time.
           Features: Time Consuming, Costly, Reliable, Valid, Good in testing child, mentally weak and shy persons
  Group Test: Many persons can be tested at a time.
Features:  Less Time Consuming, Less Costly, Less Reliable, Less Valid, Not Good in testing child, mentally weak and shy persons
 Other Classification:
   Verbal Test: Words are used in testing.
   Features: Culture Specific, Cannot be used with persons not having same language
Performance Test: Words are not used. Instead some performance is tested.
Features: Not Culture Specific, Can be used with persons not having same language

Tuesday, October 19, 2010


Aptitude refers to those qualities characterizing a persons way of behavior which serve to indicate how well he can learn to meet & solve a certain specified kinds of problem.
People differ in terms of performance and human activity like leadership, music, art, teaching etc.
Musical training, steno typist’s job.
Individual possess certain specific aptitude or ability in addition to intellectual abilities or intelligence, which helps them to achieve success in some specific occupations or activities. Thus aptitude means specific ability or capacity disitinct from general intellectual ability that helps to acquire proficiency or achievement in specific field.
Types of aptitude Tests:
  1. Mechanical Aptitude test
  2. Musical aptitude test
  3. Art judgement test
  4. Professional aptitude test
  5. Scholastic aptitude test
  6. Clerical aptitude test

Humanistic Approach of learning : Carl Roger’s Theory of Experiential Learning:

Humanistic Approach of learning : Carl Roger’s Theory of Experiential Learning:
Experiential Learning:
  1. Vital to one’s progress & welfare
  2. Associated with an application of the acquired knowledge
  3. Learning psychological principles . Example Engines in order to repair a car.
  4. Learner centered.
  5. Cares for needs & wants of Learner.
Characteristics or qualities of experiential learning:
  1. Personal involvement of the learner.
  2. Self initiated
  3. Self evaluation
  4. Pervasive effect on a learner.
Rogers believe: Strength & potentialities of human beings. Human beings have a natural inclination for learning & a desire to grow & progress.
Role of the Teacher & the parents:
  1. To help children in their ingerent desire for personal change & growth.
  2. To care for & facilitate such learning which helps the children to grow & develop according to their requirements.
Objectives of experiential learning:
  1. To Arrange favourable & positive climate
  2. To help learners to have purpose / objectives of his/ her learning.
  3. To organize learning resources & making them available to the learners.
  4. Balancing intellectual & emotional components of learning.
  5. To share feelings & thoughts with learners in a democratic way.
Basic conditions facilitating learning:
  1. Self threat of learner is minimum.
  2. Learning resources & climate are in learners favour.
  3. Complete participation of learners, control its nature & direction.
  4. Self evaluation for progress & success.
  5. Realizes importance of learning
  6. Develops an openness as well as willingness to learn.
Experiential learning advocates:
  1. Humanistic  & learner centered approach in classroom.
  2. To make learning process more humane.
  3. As  per the needs & interest of the learners.
  4. Personal social growth and development
  5. Emphasizing more on application than on theory alone.

Gestalt's Laws of learning

Gestalt laws of learning:
  1. Laws of similarity:
Grasp things which are similar. Similar ideas and experiences gets associated together. An object revives another object which resembles it. Example: seeing a man & remembering an intimate friend by some resemblance in his personal appearance though never saw them together in past.
A photo reminds us of the person when it represents.
  1. Laws of proximity:
Perceptual groups are favoured according to the nearness of their respective parts. Items form groups if they are spaced together. Example Traingle & cirlce
  1. Laws of closure:
Satisified & more stable close areas than the unclosed ones. Closed areas form in groups. Incomplete situation of perception problem is not solved. Perception possible when separate parts together in a closed perceptual figure, consisting of achieving goal.
  1. Laws of continuity:
Experiences occurred together. Simultaneously & close succession which tends towards reviving one another. Example: Perception of ripe mango suggests idea of its sweet taste & flavor. Because this ideas are perceive together in the past.
Idea of inkpot suggest idea of pen
Idea of bat suggest idea of ball
  1. Laws of contrasts:
Perception or an idea tends to suggest its contrary opposite. Example: Adversity reminds a person of his days of prosperity. Heat of summer suggests the cold of winter.
On the basis of above principles children should be taught tune or melody rather than separate notes. Whole dance pattern rather than steps. Simple meaningful sentences rather than discrete words.

Factors and educational implications of insight learning

Insightful learning depends on certain factors:
  1. Experience:
Example: Problems of modern mathematics solve unless he is well acquainted with its symbolic language.
  1. Intelligence:
More intelligent greater will be his insight.
  1. Learning Situation:
Insight occurs when the learning situation is so arranged that all  the necessary aspects are open to view.
  1. Initial Efforts:
Insightful learning has to pass through the trial & error but this stage does not last ling it should be in the form of an initial effort to open the way for learning.
  1. Repetition & generalization:
Obtained solution of a problem is implement in another situation demanding similar type of solution
Educational implications of Gestalt theory of learning:
  1. Learning purposeful & goal oriented.
  2. Motivation to the learner
  3. Acquaint with specific aims & purposes of the learning.
  4. Emphasis on situation as a whole – maxim from whole to parts.
Example: To learn or memorize a poem, present as a whole. After being read & understood as a whole, break into parts or stanzas  as for effective memorized.
  1. Organization of a perceptual fields & learning material as a whole.
Learning cannot be related to subject or skill. It should be collection of isolated facts, informations or unrelated behaviuoral acts. Contributes in organization of curriculum, scheme of studies, work plan & procedure of planning the schedule of learning or teaching of a skill or a behavior.
  1. Distinction between a psychological & a logical order of presentation.
Example: to teach matter we have to proceed as subelectronic particles electrons, atoms molecules and matter.
Example: in geography: map of the world an orange and the relation of sun & earth.
  1. Problem solving attitude develops
  2. Encourages reasoning, develops thinking & trains imagination & creative activity